Prof. Patrick H. BrownUniversity of California-DavisUSA
Prof. Lee KalcsitsWashington State UniversityUSA
Prof. Tanja MimmoFree University of BolzanoItaly
Prof. Oene OenemaWageningen Environmental ResearchNetherlands
Prof. Dani ShtienbergAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani InstituteIsrael
Dr. A. K. SrivastavaICAR-Central Citrus Research InstituteIndia
Prof. Fusuo ZhangChina Agricultural UniversityChina
Professor, Plant SciencesUniversity of California-DavisUSA
Dr. Brown has been a Professor with the University of California, Department of Plant Sciences since 1988. Dr. Brown's research and outreach program has focused on development and implementation of information on the function of plant nutrients and on the management of fertilizer resources with a focus on high value crops. Dr. Brown is recognized globally as a leader in both basic and applied plant nutrition research and has made many important contributions to basic research and the Californian and Global industry with specific advances in the management of boron, potassium, nitrogen, zinc, foliar fertilization and salinity. Dr. Brown has authored more than 180 scientific journal articles, numerous industry focused practical management guidelines. Key contributions that Dr. Brown has made include, the identification of nickel as an essential element, founding research in the determination of the function, uptake and transport of boron in plants. Dr. Brown is recognized as a leading expert on nutrient management, foliar fertilization and the use of biostimulants in tree crops. Currently, Dr. Brown is at the forefront of developing management strategies for nitrogen in Californian Agriculture and is a key advisor to industry, water coalitions and water boards in the development of rational and effective strategies to manage nitrogen in Californian systems to achieve high productivity and system sustainability.
Dr. Brown graduated with a BSc (first class honors) from the University of Adelaide, Australia (1974), and Ph.D, from Cornell University, USA (1988) in Agronomy and Plant Nutrition. He has received awards for excellence in research and extension from the United States Department of Agriculture, the International Society of Plant Nutrition, Fluid Fertilizer Institute, and Potassium Industry Association. He serves as editor and associate editor for several academic journals, as scientific advisor to several industry groups and water coalitions and was past president of the International Plant Nutrition Society.
Nitrogen Regulations and Changes in California Agriculture – A Case Study
Intense nitrogen use in California’s irrigated high value crops has resulted in the imposition of the United State’s strictest nitrogen use regulations. The challenge of maintaining productivity and profitability in these input intensive, high-value and long-lived cropping systems, while protecting the environment, was the genesis for a series of highly multidisciplinary research and extension projects that will be described in this presentation.
As a prelude to this project, grower and stakeholder surveys and listening sessions were conducted to identify the socioeconomic, educational and technological determinants of historic N management practices and findings were used to target our research, educational and outreach programs. Field and laboratory experimentation were then conducted to improve our understanding of the biology of N in tree crops and to better characterize the environmental transport and fate of applied N under different management scenarios. Extensive outreach and educational activities and the collaborative development of appropriate and approachable technologies were also undertaken. To further refine our strategies, identify knowledge and practice gaps and continue to affect change, an extensive survey of the ‘barriers to adoption of new nitrogen management strategies’ is underway. Collectively this multidisciplinary approach has resulted in discernable improvements in N management in the high value crops of California.
This highly collaborative project has resulted in the development and implementation of improved practices and a sound regulatory framework that has been embraced by the industry. The trajectory of this long-term project, the lessons learned, and mistakes made, will be described.
Assistant ProfessorTree Fruit PhysiologyDepartment of HorticultureWashington State UniversityUSA
Dr. Lee Kalcsits is an assistant professor of tree fruit physiology in the Department of Horticulture at the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center in Wenatchee, Washington, USA. He completed a B.S.A in Horticulture and a M.S. in Tree Physiology at the University of Saskatchewan and a Ph.D. in Forestry and Tree Physiology at the University of British Columbia. For this work, he received the Marschner Young Scientist Award at the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium in Istanbul, Turkey in 2013. After a short postdoctoral stint at the University of Victoria, he accepted his position in 2014 with WSU working on apple, pear, and cherry. His research program works towards understanding the interactions between environment, horticultural management and genetics of tree fruit. Currently his work is focused on understanding the mechanisms contributing to calcium-related disorders and symptoms of abiotic stress in apple and developing strategies to mitigate those problems.
Recent Advances In Methods for Measuring Nutrient Uptake, Distribution, and Localization in Perennial Fruit Crops
Professor of Agricultural Chemistry at the Faculty of Science and TechnologyFree University of BolzanoItaly
Tanja Mimmo is an associate Professor in Agricultural Chemistry at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the Free University of Bolzano, Italy since 2015. She completed a M.S. in Chemistry at the University of Bologna and a PhD in Agricultural, Forestry, and Food Sciences at the University of Torino. She was visiting scientist at the Federal University of Santa Maria and the Santa Caterina State University in Brazil, at the Technische Universität München, Germany and at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria. She is an expert in rhizosphere biogeochemistry focusing on the dynamics of elements triggered by the soil-plant-microorganisms interactions. Her research is focused on the mobilization, uptake and allocation of elements in plants applying chemical, biochemical, molecular and physiological approaches.
Rhizosphere Dynamics: Plant-Soil-Microorganisms Interactions Triggering Nutrient Mobilization and Uptake Mechanisms
Professor in Nutrient Management and Soil FertilityWageningen Environmental ResearchNetherlands
Oene Oenema was borne on a dairy farm in Friesland. He has BSc in Agronomy, MSc in Soil Science and Plant Nutrition and PhD in Marine Geochemistry. His research interest are in nutrient cycling and management in agro-ecosystems. From 1994, he is professor in Nutrient Management and Soil Fertility at Wageningen University. He is chair of the scientific committee on the nutrient management policy in The Netherlands, and distinguished professor at China Agricultural University in Beijing. He is (co)author of some 200 papers in peer refereed scientific journals (H-factor 81; total citations 22872; source: Google Scholar; 20-11-2019). He likes cycling.
Nutrient Management in Fruit Crops and the Need to Minimize Nutrient Losses
This paper reviews trends in nutrient management in fruit production, with an emphasis on European Union (EU). We review changes in nutrient management strategies and their impacts on orchard performance and nutrient balances of some main fruit crops, in response to changes in consumer demands, technological developments and governmental policies.
There are about 1.5 million farms managing fruit orchards and 2.5 million farms managing vineyards in EU-27. Together these farms cover 4 % of the utilized agricultural area. Roughly one-third of these farms is specialized. Main producers are Spain, Italy, France, Germany and Poland. Dominant crops are grapes, almonds, apples and pears. The total value of fruits is more than 10% of the total value of all agricultural goods and services produced in the EU. However, the EU is also a main importer of fruits.
Nutrient and water management are important components in orchard management for enhancing fruit yield and fruit quality. Optimizing nutrient and water management is a key factor for increasing net financial returns and for decreasing nutrient losses and the environmental impacts of fruit production. Nutrient and water management also influences pest and disease management, and the longevity of the orchard. There is a bewildering diversity in both fruit types and cultivars, as well as in soil and climatic conditions in global fruit production systems. This diversity greatly influences nutrient demands by the crop and the indigenous nutrient supply by the soil, and thus requests for orchard and site-specific nutrient management. While the emphasis is often on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as the main fruit yield and quality limiting nutrients, secondary nutrients and micro-nutrients may also greatly influence fruit yield and quality. This is especially the case in soils with low or high pH, and in soils with low organic matter content and poor structure.
Two diverting trends in nutrient management may be distinguished. Organic fruit production is steadily increasing (currently 5 to 10% of the total fruit area), and here the emphasis is on improving soil fertility, often through increasing soil organic matter via manuring. In high-tech orchards the emphasis is on optimizing the nutrient concentrations in the crop (often grown in containers) through delivering targeted portions of soluble nutrients through fertigation. However, in most conventional orchards the emphasis is in between those contrasting nutrient management strategies; here the focus is on both improving soil fertility and nutrient concentrations in the leaves, based on both soil and plant analyses. Governmental regulations, quality marks and certification increasingly force growers to follow a certain nutrient management strategy, and to monitor changes in nutrient concentrations and to achieve certain standards.
Dept. of Environmental HorticultureAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani CenterIsrael
Michael Raviv is an emeritus Professor of the Agricultural Research Organization, Israel, to which he was affiliated since 1971 (http://www.agri.gov.il/en/people/721.aspx).
His main interests are in plant nutrition in Organic Agriculture, growing plants in soilless media, composting, compost uses and their activity against soil-borne diseases. Since 1995 and until 2016 he taught an academic course on Organic Agriculture in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Over the years he published over 150 scientific papers. In addition he edited or co-edited 7 books, including the book: Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice (https://www.elsevier.com/books/soilless-culture-theory-and-practice/raviv/978-0-444-52975-6#audience) published by Elsevier. A second edition has recently been published (https://www.elsevier.com/books/soilless-culture-theory-and-practice/raviv/978-0-444-63696-6).
Michael has a long-term experience in various composting techniques aimed at producing composts suitable for soil improvement, plant nutrition, growing media and suppressiveness against a wide variety of soil-borne diseases.
Potential Contribution of Organic Matter to Plant Nutrition
Senior Research Scientist Department of Plant Pathology and Weed ResearchAgricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani InstituteIsrael
Prof. Shtienberg is a senior research scientist in the Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), the Volcani Institute, Bet Dagan, and as an Adjunct Professor of Plant Pathology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. He completed his studies in the Faculty of Agriculture, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and received his PhD in 1987. He joined the ARO in 1991. During the years 2004-5 he spent a sabbatical leave at the University of Adelaide, South Australia and HortResearch, Auckland, New Zealand. He served as the President of the Israeli Phytopathological Society (1994-1996), the head of the Departments of Nematology (2000-2001) and Plant Pathology and Weed Research (2006-2008) at the ARO. In 2016 he was nominated as the Deputy Director for strategic development of the ARO.
Prof. Shtienberg's interests lie in the area of plant disease epidemiology, modeling and crop loss assessment. He has developed IPM strategies and decision support systems for management of foliar pathogens of numerous crops. Among which are Ascochyta blight on chickpea, Septoria tritici blotch and rusts of wheat, rust of sunflowers, early and late blight of potatoes, Alternaria in cotton and carrots, fire blight in pears, bacterial canker of tomatoes, and gray mold in basil, tomatoes and cucumbers. Prof. Shtienberg has published more than 170 scientific papers and review articles in various international journals and proceedings of symposia and 100 papers in Hebrew. He has been the major supervisor of more than 30 graduate students in plant pathology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Bar-Ilan University.
The Role of Calcium Concentration in the Endocarp Wall of Apple Fruit in the Development of Core Rot
Visiting Professor at Huazhong Agricultural University and Yangtze University, ChinaPrincipal Scientist (Soil Science), ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, India
Dr. A.K. Srivastava joined Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) on December 5, 1989 in Soil Science - Pedology. Currently perched as Principal Scientist (Soil Science) at ICAR - Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur. Having received his M.Sc. (Ag) and Ph.D in Soil Science from world famous Banaras Hindu University, in 1984 and 1988, respectively. He has extensively pursued research work on different aspects of Citrus Nutrition like nutrient constraints analysis of citrus orchards by developing DRIS-based soil-plant nutrient diagnostics, orchard efficiency modeling, targeted yield-based site specific nutrient management exploiting spatial variability in soil fertility, citrus rhizosphere specific microbial consortium and soil carbon loading, INM module, nutrient mapping using geospatial tools, transformation of soil microbial biomass nutrients within citrus rhizosphere and soil fertility map as decision support tool for fertilizer recommendation. Handled 15 projects as Principal Investigator and 17 projects as Co-Principal Investigator. Credited with 140 Research Papers and 43 Policy Review. Received the awards like S.N.Ranade Award for Excellence in Micronutrient Research, FAI Silver Jubilee Award, International Plant Nutrition Institute-FAI Award, etc. Life Member of as many as 32 academic societies with rich peer reviewed editorial experience, besides Honorary Member of World Association of Soil and Water Conservationists. Inducted as fellow of 10 professional academic societies. Authored the books like Citrus: Climate and Soil, Citrus Nutrition Advances in Citrus Nutrition by Springer-Verlag, The Netherland. He was keynote speaker in World Citrus Congress at Wuhan, China.
Diagnosis and Management of Nutrient Constraints in Citrus: Major Breakthroughs
In developing nutrient-supply-chain, microbial inoculation of late, has assumed a much greater significance, ever since depleting soil organic carbon started sounding an alarm bell to unabated nutrient mining. Consortium of effective microbes showed a clear cut superiority over sole microbial inoculation, regulating the functional dynamics of rhizosphere through biofertigation as a newest concept of fertigation, a little known nutrient-supply-system in citrus. The concept of nutrient-use-efficiency (a version of nutrient holiday concept) applied on the principles of 4R Nutrient Stewardship provides an ultimate framework guide to fertilizer-use in citrus. Combined use of organic manures, microbial biofertilizers, and chemical fertilizers, coupled with an understanding on nutrient acquisition and regulating the water relations would help switch citrus orchards to a better CO2 sink, to evolve a more sound integrated soil fertility management, since a citrus cultivar evaluated under intensive and organic farming system may not perform with similar magnitude of success, but would be pivotal to nutritional qualities of citrus.
Dean of School of Agriculture Green Development (AGD)President of National Academy of Agriculture Green DevelopmentChina Agricultural UniversityChina
Fusuo Zhang, Professor in Plant Nutrition. His research is mainly focused on how to realize high crop yield, high nutrient use efficiency and protect environment at the same time, in order to ensure food security and realize sustainable development in China. In last more than 30 years, he developed a series of integrated soil-crop and nutrient management technologies to increase crop yield and improve nutrient use efficiency, while reduce environmental footprint significantly. Through the vast network and governmental actions the great changes have been made for transformation of agriculture from sole high input and output to high yield, high efficiency and environmental sound. He has published over 400 peer-reviewed papers, including the prestige Science, Nature and PNAS and got 2007 IFA International Crop Nutrition Award as well as 2014 Award for Agricultural Science from The World Academy of Science. He pioneered a new model of transfer of knowledge to farmers and fertilizer industry and successfully tested in 15 provinces across China. He got 3 national and 5 province awards on science and technology advances, and has been elected to be the members of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the member of the World Academy of Science and the International Eurasian Academy of Science.
Improving Nutrient Management for Food Security and Sustainability